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Turabian's Parenthetical / Reference List Style Guide

What is a parenthetical citation?

Using the parenthetical / reference list Turabian citation style you correctly identify a source in the text (in-text) of your paper by including  key source information next to the reference to that source in parenthesis. You can consult Section 18.3 of the manual for additional information if needed.

See Turabian's A Manual For Writers fugure A.11 in the appendix for a sample page of text with parenthetical citations.

Parenthetical Citation Example Index:


U.S. Constitution is cited as parenthetical citations ONLY.  Do not include as an item in your reference list.

Constitution parenthetical example


  • Include article or amendment, section, and clause only if relevant
  • Use arabic numerals and abbreviations for terms such as amendment and section if preferred
  • If you include the parentetical citation in text spell out all terms (for example, The U.S. Constitution, in article 1, section 9, forbids...OR The First Amendment...)

Law, Case Law & Treaties

Law, Case Law & Treaties parenthetical example



  • Statutes are bills or resolutions that have been passed into law and are first published sperately and then collected in the annual bound volumes of United States Statues at Large (since 1874).  Later they are incorporated into the United States Code. Cite specific provision by section and in Statues by page.
  • For legal cases you can cite either or both elements in text as well.