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Turabian's Parenthetical / Reference List Style Guide

What is a parenthetical citation?

Using the parenthetical / reference list Turabian citation style you correctly identify a source in the text (in-text) of your paper by including  key source information next to the reference to that source in parenthesis. You can consult Section 18.3 of the manual for additional information if needed.

See Turabian's A Manual For Writers fugure A.11 in the appendix for a sample page of text with parenthetical citations.

Parenthetical Citation Example Index:


The Bible and other sacred works are cited as parenthetical citations ONLY.  Do not include these information sources in your reference list.  For additional questions see chapter 19.5.2 and 24.6.5 in the manual.

bible parenthetical example


  • NEVER include a page number use verse number
  • Accepted abbreviations can be found in the chapters of the manual as noted above - consult your instructor if you are unsure of which format is appropriate for your assignment
  • For citations of othr sacred works the format presented here can be adapted as appropriate.  See 24.6.5 of Manual.