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Turabian's Parenthetical / Reference List Style Guide

What is a parenthetical citation?

Using the parenthetical / reference list Turabian citation style you correctly identify a source in the text (in-text) of your paper by including  key source information next to the reference to that source in parenthesis. You can consult Section 18.3 of the manual for additional information if needed.

See Turabian's A Manual For Writers fugure A.11 in the appendix for a sample page of text with parenthetical citations.

Parenthetical Citation Example Index:

Executive Branch

Executive Branch parenthetical example


  • Government commissions like the Federal Communication Commission or the Securities and Exchange Commission sometimes present like legislative / congressional reports.  As such they often are classified as House (H) or Senate (S) documents and the parenthetical should reflect this when it occurs.  Otherwise use the commision as author and cite using the standard parenthetical.
  • Online government agency documents or commission documents without page numbers use the online standard with "under" and a locator instead of page number.
  • Cite state and local government documents as you would federal goverment documents.  See chapter 19.9.8 in the manual for additional information on state and local government document parenthetical citation.


U.S. Congress

U.S. Congress parenthetical example


  • Since 1873 congressional debates have been published in the Congressional Record. Cite the permanent volumes where possible as it often reflects changes from the daily issues of the Record. Begin the parenthetical with the abbreviation Cong. Rec. See 19.9.2 for debates from earlier records using this parenthetical citation format as a starting point. 
  • If you need to include the name of speaker and subject of a debate do this in your text.


International Bodies

International Bodies parenthetical example



  • Abbreviations for major bodies are acceptable where reference is clear like United Nations (UN).
  • Online international body documents without page numbers use the online standard with "under" and a locator instead of page number.