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Turabian's Parenthetical / Reference List Style Guide

What is a parenthetical citation?

Using the parenthetical / reference list Turabian citation style you correctly identify a source in the text (in-text) of your paper by including  key source information next to the reference to that source in parenthesis. You can consult Section 18.3 of the manual for additional information if needed.

See Turabian's A Manual For Writers fugure A.11 in the appendix for a sample page of text with parenthetical citations.

Parenthetical Citation Example Index:

References: Encyclopedia & Dictionary

Well known reference works like major dictionaries or encyclopedias are cited as parenthetical citations ONLY.  Do not include these reference materials in your reference list.  For additional questions see chapter19.5.3 in the manual.

Encyclopedia & Dictionary parenthetical example


  • Title of work is in italics
  • Edition only inlcude if not the first edition
  • Sub verbo means "under the word" and is noted as s.v. in the citation; plural is s.vv.
  • Online reference materials are frequently updated so include both the stable url as well as the date you accessed the entry
  • Treat less well know reference books as you would a book by including the work in your reference list but follow this formatting for the parenthetical citation