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Turabian's Parenthetical / Reference List Style Guide

What is a parenthetical citation?

Using the parenthetical / reference list Turabian citation style you correctly identify a source in the text (in-text) of your paper by including  key source information next to the reference to that source in parenthesis. You can consult Section 18.3 of the manual for additional information if needed.

See Turabian's A Manual For Writers fugure A.11 in the appendix for a sample page of text with parenthetical citations.

Parenthetical Citation Example Index:

Multiple Authors / Editors

Parenthetical citation examples

(Turabian 2007, 218-19)


  • No author, use the title.
  • Authors with same last name, add author's first initial even if dates are different, if initials same spell out author's first name
  • Author know but not listed use brackets and a question mark to indicate uncertainty ([Last Name?] Date, Page XX-XX)
  • Author and Editor listed use Author
  • No author but Editor or Translator provided, use Editor or Translator last name
  • No personal author noted but Association, Commission, or Corporation name provided (even if also publisher), use the organization's name as author