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PHRD 600 Library Research Guide : Citing Sources

In-Text Citations

Whenever you use information, ideas, or images that are not your own, you must give the original author(s) credit within the body of your paper and in your References. Each citation style has a different approach for formatting your In-Text citations and your Reference List.

In-Text Citations

Here are a few very basic examples of what In-Text citations look like for APA, MLA, and AJHP:


Direct quote: "...mothers who are overly strict and harshly punitive... who strongly show their anger or disappointment with their children, are likely to impede their children's prosocial development" (Hastings, Jones, & Smith, 2000, p. 543).

Paraphrase: Extremely critical mothers might warp children's social development (Hastings, Jones, & Smith, 2000).

Notes: For direct quotes include the author(s) last name(s), year, and page number. For paraphrases include the author(s) last name(s) and year. For in-text citations with three, four, or five authors, list all names followed by commas the first time, and only first author followed by et al. and date for subsequent cites; for six or more authors, use the abbreviation et al. following the first author name for all citations.

More information: APA In-Text Citation Help


Direct quote: "Music has come a long way since […] But it will never supplant the sounds of traditional instruments" (Taylor 37).

Paraphrase: There has been a great disagreement between physicists and musicians about music (Taylor 37).

Notes: Include the author(s) last name(s) and the page number

More information: MLA In-Text Citation Help


Direct quote: "A PGY-1 or site-specific residency should be a minimal requirement for an academic appointment as an adjunct clinical faculty member or preceptor at schools or colleges of pharmacy."1

Paraphrase (Example 1): In 2007, the ASHP House of Delegates established a goal that all new graduate pharmacists participating in direct patient care should complete a residency.1

Paraphrase (Example 2): As Bush1 and Ivey and Farber2 have pointed out, there is no better way to do this than through residency training.

Notes: Number your in-text citations in the order in which they appear using superscript Arabic numbers. If you cite a source a second time, it keeps the number you originally gave it.

More information AJHP In-Text Citation Help

Examples from: Kent SS. Closing the residency gap. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2011; 68:1293-4.