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APA Style Guide

Guidelines for Including DOIs and URLs

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, print or online.
  • If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include one.
  • In an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
  • If an online work has a URL but no DOI, include the URL as follows:
    •  include URL for works from websites (not including databases).
    •  do not include URL or database information from most academic research databases because these works are widely available; the reference should be the same as the print version of the work.
    • include the URL and database name for works that must be retrieved from that exact database; this would include databases that publish items of limited circulation or original, proprietary material available only in that database.
    • If the URL of the specific item requires a login, provide the URL to the database home page or login page.  (APA 7, 9.34).