Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA Style Guide

Guidelines for Including DOIs and URLs

  • Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, print or online.
  • If a print work does not have a DOI, do not include one.
  • In an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI.
  • If an online work has a URL but no DOI, include the URL as follows:
    •  include URL for works from websites (not including databases).
    •  do not include URL or database information from most academic research databases because these works are widely available; the reference should be the same as the print version of the work.
    • include the URL and database name for works that must be retrieved from that exact database; this would include databases that publish items of limited circulation or original, proprietary material available only in that database.
    • If the URL of the specific item requires a login, provide the URL to the database home page or login page.  (APA 7, 9.34).