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APA Style Guide

What if there's no DOI?

Not every item you come across in your research will have an assigned DOI, but you are expected to try to determine if one exists or not. You can often find DOIs:

  • in database records of specific articles: 
  • on bottom or top of the first page of an article
  • by entering the article title into the search box at

PLEASE NOTE: these DOIs may not be in the APA recommended format; check with you professor to see what is acceptable for your assignment.

If no DOI is found, follow these guidelines.